¤ Terrestrial globe
with title in a cartouche : "Cosmotheore, Coelesti nostro Globo, par, et plane Novus Hic Terrestris Ut existeret Certo scias. Errore Veterum Sublato: Non tantum Utriusque Orbis Longitudines ac Latitudines, Per reiteratas Neotericorum Observationes. Hicce eße restitutas: Set et nullum typis Emendatiorum produsse Hoc isitur Norissimo tam diu fruere Donec sub Majori forma, Nostre ... Alios excudemus / Ger: et Leon. Valk Calcographi. Amsterdami, Revise A°: 1750 Cum Privilegio”.
Full brass meridian circle numbered 3, the oak stand with four ebonised columns, wood horizon with facsimilé paper horizon ring. With reconstructed hour ring. Height c. 47 cm. Prime meridian of Tenerife.
The significance of the globe lies in the fact that the cartography of the terrestrial is based on the data supplied by the French Academy and California is shown as an Island. The coast between America and Asia is filled with labeled "Terra Incognita sive Terra Esonis", and most of the Pacific incompletely mapped. The partial coastlines of Australia, New Zealand and New Guinea are noted.The northern regions of Asia reflecting the recent discoveries in Kamchatka by Witsen. Compagnie Land is shown off the southern coast of Kamchatka. Locates Peking and delineates part of the Great Wall.
Reference : P. Van der Krogt, Globi Neerlandici, Terrestrial globe VAL II, state 3. The date "A°1700" is changed to "Revis: A° 1750".
Title below Cetus in a cartouche : Uranographia Caelum omne hic Complectens, Illa pro ut aucta et ad annum
1700 Completum MAGNO ab HEVELIO correcta est: ita, ejus ex Prototypis, sua noviter haec Ectypa veris Astronomiae culturibus
exhibet et consecrat GERARDUS VALK; Amsterdaedamensis Cum Priviligio. With an advice to the reader between Hydra and Argo : MONITUM Novis hisce Sphaeris Novissimus, ex praescriptione Lotharii Zum-Bach Med: Doct.
Full brass meridian circle numbered 4, the oak stand with four ebonised columns, wood horizon with paper horizon. Height c. 47 cm.
Reference : P. Van der Krogt, Globi Neerlandici, Celestial globe VAL II. Rare state 1 (of 4).
The cartography of the gores on Valk's celestial globe, as stated in the cartouche, is based closely on the celestial atlas Uranographia, published in 1687 by the Polish astronomer Johannes Hevelius (1611-1687) who was notable for being the last great astronomer to conduct his work without the use of a telescope. Hevelius was also notable for designing his celestial maps with globes in mind, and as such they were easily transferred onto spheres.
Giving the celestial globe its own name is a striking novelty by Valk, which was not imitated by others. “Uranographia” is the title of Johannes Hevelius 1687 celestial atlas, which was also the source for Valk’s celestial globes.
By this Valk introduced a new graphic style of the constellations, by no longer using the ‘old-fashioned’ Saenredam style of Blaeu and Hondius globes. The engraving of the globe was done by the master engraver Carolus de La Haye, based on Andreas Stech’s design.
The date of the epoch is mentioned : ‘et ad annum 1700 Completum’.
The constellations finely depicted by mythical beasts and figures, a table entitled SUPER EMINET OMNES around a sun face showing the stars to six orders of magnitude, also with symbols for nebulae, all the stars picked out in gilt paint within the finely-engraved constellations depicted by mythical beasts and figures, the constellations and some individual stars labeled in Latin.
The later states have a minuscule piece of paper on which "50" has been printed is pasted over the date 1700 in the title cartouche to imply an updated globe. The change of date to 1750 did not necessarily occur in 1750, it is certain it occurred before 1763. In that year, the Utrecht van Renwoude Foundation bought a 15-inch globe pair from Valk’s widow. The celestial globe of the pair survived and is updated this way. The person who thought to change the date this way must have been Petrus Schenk II or his son, Petrus Schenk Jr. in whose house the globe factory was established after 1770.
The globe gores have the usual small signs of wear and are a little soiled and slightly darkened in places. Some text or minor areas have have beeen retouched. Mainly with original handcolouring and stars gilted and partialy touched up, but in general very good.
The paper horizon ring of the terrestial globe is in facsimilé and the stand are typical Dutch stands but do differ very slightly. Never the less a fine set making great presentation.
Gerard Valck, or Gerard Leendertz Valck (1652-1726)
was, together with his son Leonard, the only significant publisher of globes in the Netherlands in the eighteenth century, enjoying an almost total monopoly in the first few decades. The Netherlands had, in the previous century, been the main centre of globe-production in Europe, with the masters Blaeu and Hondius issuing some of the finest and most beautiful globes ever made. By 1700, however Coronelli had taken over their mantle and was issuing globes from France and Italy, and the Dutch were left with simply reissuing the Blaeu globes, in some cases entirely unaltered.
Gerard Valk was soon to surpass all other Dutch competition with the accuracy and beauty of his globes, albeit that his nearest rivals were using cartography that was already 50 years out of date.
Gerard and his son Leonard published newly-developed globes in the Netherlands in the same period as the boom in France. Their range of products included globes of 3, 6, 12, 15, 18 and 24in. Diameter.
The cartography is very detailed and is almost devoid of decorative elements.
The significance of these globes lies in the fact that the cartography of the terrestrial is based on the data supplied by the French Academy and that of the celestial on the most recent source of information, the work of Hevelius, astronomer at Danzig (Poland). Hevelius designed a number of new constellations to fill the gaps between the Ptolemaic ones.
The Valk globe makers were the only ones to apply Hevelius work to their globes. In England Hevelius work were not available: for this reason English celestial globes were designed primarily with the catalogue of John Flamsteed. The pairs of globes by Valck should be regarded as a genuine and fully new development in globe production, which justifies the Valcks distinct place in Amsterdam’s cartographical history.
Valk learnt globe making from his instructor in mathematics, navigation and cartography, Pieter Maasz Smit (fl.1680-1700); in Smit's 1698 manual on globe-making he mentions that one of his pupils intends to make and publish some new globes, and that pupil was the previously unknown Gerard Valk.
Initially an engraver and art dealer, and having worked for map-seller Christopher Browne and David Loggan in London between 1672 and 1679, Valk established his firm in Amsterdam in 1687 in co-operation with his brother-in-law Petrus Schenk (c.16661-1711). Initially they published maps and atlases, but in 1700 the company moved the shop to the building previously occupied by Jodocus Hondius.
In 1701, presumably inspired by the illustrious history of the premises he now inhabited, and by the teachings of Smit, he applied for a charter for making globes and the "Planetolabium", designed by Lotharius Zumbach de Coesfelt (1661-1727), an astronomy lecturer at Leiden University. Zumbach was a not uninfluential figure, and his support was of great help to Valck. It was also Zumbach who designed the innovative horizon rings found on Valk's globes, with data for leap years and for each of the three intervening years.
Valck issued his first pair of 12-inch diameter globes in 1701, dated 1700. Around the same time, he also published his globe manual 't Werkstellige der Sterrekonst, an updated version of Blaeu's Tweevoudigh Onderwijs.
The Valks produced several editions of 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 24-inch diameter globes.
Around 1711, when he became a member of the bookseller's guide, Gerard's son Leonard (1675-1746) came into partnership and his name started to appear alongside that of his father on the cartouches of the globes, although of the earliest of these globes still bearing the date 1700.
Leonard did not update his globes, and the prestigious position which the Valk family had disappeared.
Following Leonard's death, the firm was run by Maria Valk. Maria continued to issue globes with the unchanged gores by simply, pasting a minuscule piece of paper on which "5" or a "50" was printed over 1700 to imply an updated globe. The change of date to 1750 did not necessarily occur in 1750, it is certain it occurred before 1763. The person who tought to change the date this way must have been Petrus Schenk II or his son, Petrus Schenk Jr. In whose house the globe factory was established after 1770.
The nineteenth century saw a number of successful reissues and even an original 12-inch terrestrial globe by publisher Cornelis Covens (1764-1825), who had taken over
the firm in about 1800.