ATLAS - COSMOGRAPHIES - VOYAGES
24 NIEUHOF, J. An embassy from the East-India Company of the United Provinces, to the Grand Tartar Cham, Emperor of China deliver'd by their excellencies, Peter de Goyer and Jacob de Keyzer, at his imperial city of Peking.. London : Printed by the Author at his house in White-Friers, 1673. Folio. 327, 18, 106pp. engraved frontis page, folding map of China and plan of Canton, 18 full page & 93 text page copper etchings, interior slightly browned and spotted..
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¤ FIRST ENGLISH TEXT EDITION of this most important and early resource on China and the Chinese. Three parts in one folio by John Macock for the author. Part I: An Embassy. Part II: A narrative of the success of an embassage sent by John Maatzuyker de Badem. Part III: Appendix or […] out of Athasius Kircher his antiquities of China.
This early account of China covers a wide variety of subjects including a large section on newly discovered plants, herbs, fruits of S. China. With a folding map of all China, Korea, part of Japan, Formosa, South to the Kingdom of Cannan [Annam or Vietnam], Tartary. The book contains a meticulous description of the people, laws, customs, provinces done in much detail. Lavishly illustrated with 121 text plates by W.Hollar. The work was one of the earliest English language texts which brought new and wondrous information back to England and Europe of a continent mostly unknown at that time.
The plan of "Grounplot … of the Emperours Palace at Peking", with cut outer margin. The two folding maps backed on verso lower margin with old paper, for protective reason only. Plan of A good margin copy.
Wing N1152. Taylor 238. Morrison p.565. Cordier col. 2347.
25 HALL, B. Account of a voyage of discovery to the west coast of Corea. Londres, 1818. Beau col. Contemp. linen gilt stamped title on spine. Large paper copy. Uncut. Several pages with small light brown stains. XV; 222; CXXX; 66pp. 290 x 230 mm.
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¤ PRESENTATION COPY to William Wallace (1768-1843) appointed Professor of mathematics of Edinburgh in 1819. Almost exact contemporary with Basil Hall, fellow members of the Royal Astronomical Society,&c.
With an appendix containing charts and various hydrographical and scientific notices by captain Basil Hall and a vocabulary of the Loo-Cho language by H.J.Clifford,esq. Printed by John Murray, Albemarle Street, London. Illustrated with 8 coloured aquatints,1 uncoloured aquatint, 5 charts and one line engraving.
The book contains a narrative of the voyage to the west coast of Korea and the Great Loo-choo Island; an appendix, containing nautical details and a vocabulary of English, Japanese and the language spoken at Loo-choo.
FIRST EDITION of Hall's first and most important book. Early in 1816, Hall was given command of the 10-gun brig Lyra, and dispatched to China in company with the frigate Alceste and Lord Amherst's embassy to the Chinese Emperor Kea K'ing. The purpose of the mission was to address "the complaints of injustice and exactions on the part of the Chinese mandarins . . . from the English merchants at Canton" (DNB). After the two ships landed the diplomatic party in Canton, Hall "went on to explore the little-known East China and Yellow Seas, together with the Alceste" (Abbey). As Hall claimed in A Voyage of Discovery, "[n]othing respecting the west side of Corea [Korea] has hitherto been accurately known to Europeans" and the "celebrated map of the Jesuits" then in use was "erroneous with respect to Corea" (Preface, pp. ix, x).
After sailing down the West coast of Korea, and taking the sightings for the chart of their track appended to A Voyage of Discovery, the Lyra and Alceste continued on to Sulphur and Loo-choo Islands, now known as Iwo Jima and Okinawa, respectively. Hall and his party were prevented from landing at Sulphur Island by high winds and a rough surf, but viewed from a distance the "sulphuric volcano from which the island takes its name" (p. 58). After nearly being wrecked on the reef, they spent some weeks on Loo-choo and the neighboring islands charting the area and observing native society. "On the return journey Hall had an interview at St. Helena with Napoleon, who had known his father, Sir James Hall, when a boy at school at Brienne" (Abbey). Shortly after his arrival in England in 1817, Hall was promoted to the rank of captain.
Hall's 21-year career in the Royal Navy also took him to North America, the battle of Corruna, Galicia, Ireland, Madeira, the East Indies, Bombay, South America, the Galapagos Islands and Mexico. He retired from the Navy in 1823 to spend his remaining years "in private travel or in literary and scientific pursuits at home" (DNB).
The coloured lithographs in "A Voyage of Discovery" were executed from "drawings of scenery and costume . . . Made by Mr. William Havell [1782-1857], the eminent artist who accompanied the Embassy, from sketches taken on the spot, by Mr. C. W. Browne, midshipman of the Alceste, and [Hall]" (Preface, p. ix). "Havell was one of the best of the earlier painters in water-colour, and did much to advance the art; and his pictures in oil, though neglected during his life, have recently risen greatly in estimation" (DNB).
26 TAVERNIER, J.-B. Hern Johann Baptisten Taveniers..Vierzig Jaehrige Reize.. Nuremberg, 1681. Folio. 5 Parts in one volume. In contemp. vellum with ink title on spine. Engraved frontisp. 18 plates several wood-block text illustrations and a double page map of Japan. (212x305mm.). 335 x 210 mm.
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¤ This German edition includes Travernier's map of Japan in a reduced form (210x315mm) and contains legends about the nature of the country, e.g. where gold is mined: as well as plotting the route from Jedo to Nagasaki.
According to Cox: Travernier ... Wil always continue among the most valuable travellers in the East. His work was especially valuable at the time for its information on trade and trade routes, diamonds and mines .
Tavernier spent eleven months in Constantinople before setting out on his voyage. He joined a caravan for Persia in 1638 and made 6 voyages to Persia, India, the East Indies and Japan.
The book includes a map of Japan which is of interest for the use of East Sea, the sea between Korea and Japan, here called "Das Meer der Coreer (Mer de Coreer) and Die Ost-See (Océan Orrental)".
Jean-Baptiste Tavernier (1605-1689) used both names for he same sea-space : "Océan Oriental " written in great caracters, located in the middle of the sea, and "mer de Coreer" in minus, along eastern sea coast of Korean peninsula. Tavernier based his cartography of the shape of Japanese archipelago on the Blancus-Moreira-Dudley model.
Lake Biwi is said to be where one can catch large quantities of fish.
An island, which could be Tsushima, off the coast of Kyushu is described as the island where worthless youths are sent and made to work until their relations remove them. Tavenier marked three places where there were alleged to be silver mines. - Cordier, BJ 392 & BI 2420; Laures 529; Griep-Luber 1378; Alt Japan Cat. 1459, 1469.
27 MULLER, L. Tableau des guerres de Frédéric le Grand: ou plans figurés de vingt-six batailles rangées, ou combats essentiels donnés dans les trois guerres de Silésie. . . Potzdam, Strasbourg, Paris, 1788. In original o/l colours. 4to. 92pp. with large folding map. Contemp. mottled calf, with raised spine in 6 compartments. Richly gilted with coats of arms of Ducs of Luynes, and title on red morocco label. 590 x 640 mm.
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The book includes a large folded map "Tableaux des Guerres de Frédéric le Grand", showing a map of Poland and Eastern Germany surrounded by 25 maps showing the battle fields of Frederic II. (i.e.: Starting with the Battle of Mollwitz, which his first battle, further more battles fields around Prague, Breslau, etc. The positions of the Prussian, Austrian, Russian and French troupes coloured in a contemporary hand according to the key.
Provenance : Bibliothèque des ducs de Luynes, Château de Dampierre.
Frederick II (24 January 1712 – 17 August 1786) was King in Prussia (1740–1786) of the Hohenzollern dynasty. He is best known for his brilliance in military campaigning and organization of Prussian armies.
Upon ascending to the Prussian throne, he attacked Austria and claimed Silesia during the Silesian Wars, winning military acclaim for himself and Prussia.
Near the end of his life, Frederick physically connected most of his realm by conquering Polish territories in the First Partition of Poland.
28 LAVALLÉE, Joseph / CASSAS, Louis-François. Voyage pittoresque et historique de l'Istrie et de la Dalmatie, rédigé d'après l'itinéraire de L.F. Cassas. Paris, Didot l'Ainé, An X-1802. In-folio de (2) ff., viij-190-(1) pp.; veau fauve raciné, grecque encadrant les plats, dos lisse orné de 5 navires, tête et tr. dor., dentelle int. dor. (Relieur Bozerian). Reliure succintement restaurée, plats frottés et éraflés, coiffes et coins frottés, mors et dos consolidés. Quelques rousseurs éparses tout au long de l'ouvrage. Déchirures aux planches 11, 55 et 2..
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¤ Première édition. Elle est illustrée d'un titre et d'un frontispice gravés, de 66 planches gravées, et d'une carte double de l'Istrie et de la Dalmatie. Avec le rare prospectus relié en tête mais sans la liste des souscripteurs.
C'est en 1782 que Louis-François Cassas (1756-1827), déjà connu pour ses talents de dessinateur, et résidant à Rome, fut commandité par une société autrichienne d'amateurs de beaux-arts pour aller relever les lieux et les monuments remarquables des provinces istriennes et dalmates sous domination autrichienne. Il visita ainsi Venise, Trieste, Pola, Fiume, Zara et Split, avant de revenir à Rome.
La rédaction du texte fut confiée à Joseph Lavallée, qui travailla d'après les notes manuscrites de Cassas, et s'inspira du livre de Fortis pour la description générale du pays. - Blackmer, 296 ; Weber, 597.
29 ORTELIUS, A. Theatrum orbis terrarum. - Antwerp, Vrients, 1603. In attractive original colours. 3 parts in one volume (including the 'Parergon' and 'Nomenclator'), folio (45 x 31cm). Mounted on guards throughout. With full period hand-colouring throughout. Hand-coloured engraved allegorical general title, with full-page engraving of the arms Philip II of Spain on the verso, engraved full-page memorial to Ortelius incorporating a small circular portrait of him, full-page engraved portrait of Ortelius by Phillip Galle, hand-coloured engraved section-title to the Parergon with architectural surround, uncoloured engraved vignette on letterpress section title to the Nomenclator.
156 double-page hand-coloured engravings on 151 mapsheets (including 38 in the Parergon, 2 costume plates, 3 views), numerous woodcut initials. 450 x 310 mm.
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¤ The publication of the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum in 1570 marked an epoch in the history of cartography. ”It was the first uniformly sized, systematic collection of maps of the countries of the world based only on contemporary knowledge since the days of Ptolemy, and in that sense may be called the first modern atlas.” – R.V. Tooley.
”It's great commercial success enabled it to make a great contribution to geographical culture throughout Europe at the end of the sixteenth century”- Skelton.
Shape and contents set the standard for later atlases, when the centre of the map trade moved from Antwerp to Amsterdam.
The Theatrum consists of two elements; text and maps. Ortelius reduced the best available maps to a uniform format. Further, the Theatrum was the first major printed work of any kind to include scholarly citations of authorities (i.e. the original mapmakers), thus introducing for the first time the concept of footnoting to Western scholarship. Beside this he added the names of many other carthographers and geographers to his list. This "Catalogus auctorum tabularum geographicarum", is one of the major peculiarities of the atlas. Ortelius and his successors kept his list of map authors up-to-date. In the first edition of 1570 the list included 87 names. In this posthumous edition of 1603, it contained 183 names.
Ortelius interest in history is seen in the addition of the Nomenclator Ptolemaicus, with its own, this was a list of placenames, areas, islands, etc., taken from Ptolemy's Geographia, and their modern equivalents.
The atlas also contains De Mona Druidum Insula…Epistola. a six folio pages letter by the British geographer Humphrey Llwyd with a description of the islands of Anglesey and Man.
All Latin editions contained these scientific appendices which Ortelius apparently regarded as unnecesary in most other editions.
The first edition including his bibliography.
Abraham Ortelius was one of the most prominent citizens of Antwerp at a time when this city was a major trading centre of Europe and indeed of the world. His first biography was written shortly after his death in the form of a book of mourning, entitled Insignium huius aevi poetarum lacrymae, in obytum Cl.V. Abrahami Ortelii, Antverpiani. Its author was his good friend Francis Sweertius, and it appeared in 1601. This Latin edition of 1603 was the first edition including a summarised version of this bibliography of Ortelius and the section is followed by a engraved full-page memorial to Ortelius incorporating a small circular portrait of him.
Ortelius further included a massive appendix (the Parergon), consisting of a detailed classical atlas, to appeal to Renaissance Europe's fascination with the ancient world.
In fact, this collection of maps of the ancient world was so significant that it became the model for all historical atlases published throughout the seventeenth century. ”The maps and plates in the Parergon have to be evaluated as the most outstanding engravings depicting the wide-spread interest in classical geography in the 16th century” - Koeman.
Unlike the Theatrum, which consisted of existing maps reduced by Ortelius, the maps in the Parergon were drawn by Ortelius himself. As a scholar of antiquity, a dealer in antiques, and a visitor to ancient sites, he was well prepared to execute the maps and all the maps from the Parergon reflect his passion for the ancient world.
Ortelius’s Parergon began as a companion to his Theatrum but eventually it became an independent work.
Abraham Ortelius himself drew all his maps in manuscript before passing them to the engravers Frans Hogenberg, Ambrosius - and Ferdinand Arsenius.
The Theatrum was printed at Ortelius's expense. The heirs of Ortelius sold the copperplates and the publication right in 1601 to Jan Baptist Vrients, who added some new maps. After 1612, the year of Vrient's death, the copperplates passed to the Moretus brothers, the successors of Christoffel Plantin.
Theatrum orbis terrarum,
Antwerp: Jan Baptist Vrients, 1603.
3 parts in one volume (including the 'Parergon' and 'Nomenclator'), folio (45 x 31cm). Mounted on guards throughout. With full period hand-colouring throughout. Hand-coloured engraved allegorical general title, with full-page engraving of the arms of Philip II of Spain on the verso, engraved full-page memorial to Ortelius incorporating a small circular portrait of him, full-page engraved portrait of Ortelius by Phillip Galle, hand-colored engraved section-title to the Parergon with architectural surround, uncoloured engraved vignette on letterpress section title to the Nomenclator.
156 double-page hand-coloured engravings on 151 mapsheets (including 38 in the Parergon, 2 costume plates, 3 views), numerous woodcut initials.
Contemporary brown calf, covers bordered and panelled in gilt and blind, covers with a large central design in gilt, spine in seven compartments with raised bands, blind ruled in gilt on either side of each band, compartments with date "1603" and title "ORTELLI THEATRVM ORBIS". The front and back cover are richly tooled with center piece. Front cover has "THEA / TRUM OR / BIS TER / RARUM". Verso a center piece with a figure of Goddess of justice surrounded by a motto QUOD TIBI FIERI NON VIS ALTERI NE FECERIS ("Do unto others as you would have done unto you.") The gilt has been faded but is still partly visible. With expert restoration at board edges.
Throughtout the book the upper right margin with light foxing and several pages with expert marginal reinforcement of paper, with the usual light browning of paper. Altogether a very attractive copy, with broad margins, very attractive original colouring and attractive binding.
Examples in bright original colouring and still in a fine contemporary, and richly tooled binding are rare now-a-days. This is a very fine example of Ortelius's Renaissance masterwork: the first true atlas, here with bright and full contemporary hand colouring. This Latin edition published by Jan Baptist Vrients is one of the most complete issues of the 'Theatrum Orbis' and includes both the 'Parergon' and 'Nomenclator.
Marcel v.d.Broecke estimates that 300 copies of this edition are printed.
The Theatrum… of Abraham Ortelius was one of the most brilliant and innovative of all Renaissance books. It was the first true atlas in the modern sense of the word, and as such, it introduced an entirely new and standardized method for the study of geography. For the first time in one volume, all parts of the globe were treated in a comprehensive and uniform manner, and thus it presented as complete a picture as was then possible of the whole world.
Ortelius published editions of his atlas not only in Latin, the traditional language of the scholarly elite, but in the six major European vernaculars: German, Dutch, French, Italian, English and Spanish. The Theatrum was therefore equally at home in the library of a scholar in Paris, a country gentleman in Kent, or a merchant in Grenada. This widespread dissemination had profound results in an age when geographical knowledge was in a rudimentary state: the information laid out in the Theatrum became the universally accepted vision of the world.
Another strategy used to make the atlas more accessible to the public was the inclusion of beautiful embellishments in the popular mannerist style, thus appealing to contemporary aesthetic tastes, and aligning the Theatrum with the other great artistic accomplishments of the age. In speaking of the maps in the Theatrum, the noted art historian, James A. Welu comments on ”their richness of ornamentation, [they are] a combination of science and art that has rarely been surpassed in the history of mapmaking … Ortelius's Theatrum is known for its numerous decorative cartouches, which undoubtedly added to the atlas's long popularity” - Art and Cartography, pp. 145-146.
Ortelius played a pivotal role in disseminating the revelations of the important explorations and cartographical works of his time. The enthusiasm he and his colleagues felt for their task is suggested in the quote from Cicero at the bottom of the world map, which may be loosely translated: ”How can human affairs be taken seriously by one who contemplates the great world and all eternity? ”
In its comprehensive coverage of the world, the uniform excellence of its maps, the standardized style and format, the extensive use of the vernacular for marketing, its scholarly citations, and massive classical appendix - the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum of Abraham Ortelius had no precedent.
ORTELIUS, Abraham (1527-1598)
Abraham Ortel, better known as Ortelius was born in Antwerp and after studying Greek, Latin and mathematics started his carreer as a colourist of maps. Later, together with his sister he became a seller of books, prints and maps. Travelling widely, especially to the great book fairs, his business prospered and he established contacts with the literati in many lands. On one such visit to England, possibly seeking temporary refuge from religious persecution, he met William Camden whom he is said to have encouraged in the production of the Britannia.
A turning-point in his career was reached in 1564 with the publication of a World Map in eight sheets of which only one copy is known: other individual maps followed and then - at the suggestion of a friend - he gathered together a collection of maps from contacts among European cartographers and had them engraved in uniform size and issued in 1570 as the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (Atlas of the Whole World).
Abraham Ortelius became the Royal Cartographer to Philip II King of Spain. Philip sent him a golden necklace worth one thousand ducats.
He died on the 28th of June 1598 at the age of 71.
Although Lafreri and others in Italy had published collections of 'modern' maps in book form in earlier years, the Theatrum was the first uniformly sized, systematic collection of maps and hence can be called the first atlas, although that term itself was not used until twenty years later by Mercator.
Map colouring - van der Krogt Koeman III, 31:053.
At the age of 19, Abraham Ortels' name was found in the register of the guild of St Luke as "afsetter" or colourist of maps and prints. He seems to have reached a very advanced level of skill in this craft, as some customers continued to insist on buying atlases coloured by him personally at a time when he had already developed into a publisher and cartographer / merchant.
Ortelius was never married and lived with his sister Anna, situation that would not change throughout his life. Real prosperity arrived with the publication in 1570 of his atlas and it was his sister Anne who took over the task of colouring, and remained a competent colourist for the rest of her life. Incidentally, most map colouring at this time was done by children.
Useful reading : Marcel van den Broecke - Ortelius Atlas Maps.
Since 1595 the important map of Japan and the island of Korea was included in the Theatrum and it was for the first time Japan was "decently" mapped, both position and shape. Since the middle-ages Japan was depicted as Chipangu or Zipangu. The Portuguese reached Japan in 1542. Till in 1641 all foreigners, except the Dutch and Chinese, had to leave the country. At the time missionaries offered the most cartographic information about the country. The data from the Jesuits was accordingly revised by the official Portuguese cartographs, like Fernao Vaz Dourado.
He gave Japan the shape of the back of a tortoise, like it was depicted already in the second half of the sixteenth century. Thanks to the close contacts between Ortelius with Luis Teixeira, the most modern map in 1595 was added to the Theatrum, the orientation of the island Honsyu is not optimal yet, but the shape, now probably derived form autochthonous examples, has made a considerable improvement.
With a letter dated at February 2, 1592 Texeira sent to Ortelius "dos piesas de las descriptiones de la China y del Japan." (Hessels letter 210) Ortelius had asked for these maps in a previous letter, which has not been found. At the same time he promised a map of Brazil, but only the map of Japan and Korea was used for the Theatrum since 1595. The map is the first reasonably accurate and recognizable European depiction of Japan. Little was known of this mythical and remote island. Korea is shown as an island and even less was known about it.
30 MERCATOR, G./ JANSSON, J. Atlas Minor. Amsterdam, 1630. In contemp. vellum binding. Allegoric title-pages, 13, 763pp., 12pp index with 143 full-page maps. Binding with brown stains and some minor repair.stains, corners restored. Last blanc pages with some reinforcement of paper. 180 x 225 mm.
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¤ Uncommon DUTCH text-edition of this influential pocket atlas, published by Johannes Janssonius. The plates were executed by two of Holland's finest engravers, Abraham Goos and Pieter van der Keere. All maps are fine and dark impressions.
World map, Europe, Africa, Asia, America, North Pole, Iceland, United Kingdom (17), Scandinavia (5), Prussia, Livonia, Russia (2), Lithuania, Eastern Europe (7), Portugal, Spain (6), France (15), Switzerland (5), Low Countries (11), Germany (21), Austria (3), Poland, Italy (15), Greece (4), Africa (7), Asia (11, including Turkish Empire, Holy Land, Turkey, Cyprus, Persia, Tartary, China, Indonesia, India, Japan, Ceylon), America (5, Mexico, Virginia, Cuba, South America, Strait Magellan).
Shortly after the publication of the big folio-atlases the need was apparently felt for a smaller-sized atlas, one that would be handier and above all, cheaper. The Atlas Minor was larger in format than other small atlases available at the time; allowing for significantly greater detail and more place names than found in its rivals.
Engraved title page with here as mentioned by v.d.Krogt, the past-on title and imprint labels missing, having the Latin title, dated 1628, visible.
The preface mentions that this edition is the first translation into the Dutch language (French and German translations already existed)
- v.d. Krogt, Koeman Atlantes Neerlandici, 352:21.
31 CELLARIUS, A. / VALK,G. / SCHENK, P. Harmonia macrocosmica seu Atlas universalis et novus, totius universi creati cosmographiam generalem et novam exhibens. Amsterdam, 1708. In attractive strong original colours. In-folio de (3) ff. (frontispice, titre et index) et 29 cartes doubles ; veau brun, dentelle dorée encadrant les plats, fleurons d'angle dorés, dos à nerfs orné (reliure de l'époque). Dos refait. Bel exemplaire. - Folio (545 x 360mm). Title printed in red and black, additional engraved allegorical title by F. H. v. Hoven, and 29 double-page engraved celestial maps, all coloured in contemporary hand. In contemp. Full calf binding. Wide margins and dark impressions. Very good throughout. 540 x 360 mm.
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¤ Magnifique atlas céleste illustré de 29 cartes doubles en coloris d'époque. L’atlas d’Andreas Cellarius (né en 1596) intitulé « Coelestis, seu Harmonia Macrocosmica », est célèbre pour ses 29 magnifiques cartes célestes dans le style baroque. Les 21 premières constituent une étude historique des théories cosmologiques, elles illustrent les mouvements du soleil et des planètes selon les théories de Ptolémée, Copernic et Tycho Brahé.
Les 8 dernières sont des hémisphères ou des planisphères célestes qui décrivent les constellations ; ces dernières sont abondamment et magnifiquement ornées. L’atlas de Cellarius fut publié pour la première fois en 1660, puis en 1661 et 1666. Les éditeurs d’Amsterdam Gerard Valk et Petrus Schenk, qui achetèrent les cuivres originaux en 1694, publièrent en 1708 une nouvelle édition du « Harmonia Macrocosmica », sans le texte en latin qui accompagnait l’édition originale.
- Although little is known about the life of Andreas Cellarius (born around 1596), his work Atlas Coelestis, seu Harmonia Macrocosmica is well known among collectors of celestial maps for the sumptuous Baroque style of its 29 double plates. The first 21 constitute a historical survey of cosmological theories, illustrating the motions of the sun and planets according to Ptolemy, Copernicus and Tycho Brahe. The last eight plates are celestial hemispheres and planispheres depicting the constellations; they are the most ornate of all, and their level of artistic detail has made these plates popular among collectors of fine art.
The first of a projected two-volume set (the second volume never materialized), Cellarius’ atlas had its first printing in 1660 and went through two subsequent printings in 1661 and 1666.
The Amsterdam publishers Gerard Valk and Petrus Schenk, who purchased the original copper plates plates in 1694 and produced in 1708 a new edition of the Harmonia Macrocosmica, this time without the extensive Latin text that had accompanied the original printings.
Despite its continued popularity as an art object, the Harmonia Macrocosmica was panned on its first appearance by professional astronomers (including Cellarius’ countryman and contemporary Christiaan Huygens) for its scientific inaccuracies.
But more recent commentators have taken a more conciliatory view. Van Gent quotes the Swiss astronomer Rudolf Wolf, who in his 1877 book Geschichte der Astronomie suggests that, for all its failings, Cellarius’ atlas had merit by virtue of its all-encompassing scope.
For its peculiarity, the atlas by Andreas Cellarius, published in Amsterdam in 1708 under the title Harmonia macrocosmica seu Atlas universalis et novus, totius universi creati cosmographiam generalem et novam exhibens, deserves particular emphasis, for in it he attempts to depict not only the heavens but the entire structure of the world.
The Ptolemaic, Tychonic and Copernican systems are dealt with in 29 plates — the first is particularly detailed, with special concentration upon the theories of the Sun, the Moon, the upper and lower planets; the next two plates represent the Christian, the last six the heathen skies — naturally according to the taste of the period, so that in spite of the neatness of the drawing one can hardly see the stars for the figures.
The Harmonia Macrocosmica marks a high point in the artistic development of celestial maps, but it was based largely on existing work and contributed no new science. The perfection of the telescope would soon force artistic considerations to take a back seat to accuracy: Although the beauty of Cellarius’ atlas has rarely been surpassed, it was quickly superseded by homelier but more accurate maps. (text : Divine Sky: The Artistry of Astronomical Maps, University of Michigan)
32 d'ANVILLE (Jean Baptiste Bourguignon Atlas. Paris, 1732- 1779. In original o/l colours. Atlas in elephant folio (book block measuring 580x375 mm.), bound in modern. half calf with gilted label on spine "ATLAS DE D'ANVILLE", 59 pages multisheet maps, actual map sheet count is 42. Maps dated 1743-1786. This set is accompanied by a 4 pages printed broadsheet "Mémoire instructif. . . En Mars MDCCXXXII D'Anville, Geographe ordinaire du Roy. Permis d'imprimer ce 21 Mars 1732, Herault" and 4 pages manuscript text in pen and brown ink "Mémoire instructif pour faire la carte (de d'Anville)…"
Very good condition inside the book block, the two sheet map of Africa has slight overall browning, the others printed on fine white thick paper and coloured in outline. 580 x 375 mm.
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Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville was perhaps the most important and prolific cartographer of the 18th century.
He engraved his first map at the age of fifteen and produced many maps of high quality throughout his career. He became the finest cartographer of his time and carried on the French school of cartography developed by the Sanson and the de L'Isle families.
Although he apparently never left the city of Paris, he had access to the reports and maps of French explorers, traders, and missionaries. During his long career he accumulated a large collection of cartographic materials that has been preserved. He was particularly interested in Asia and produced the first reasonably accurate map of China in 1735.
He became Royal Geographer and Cartographer to the King of France in the middle of the eighteenth century, at a time when French cartography was still considered to be the best in the world.
He was the successor to Guillaume Delisle as the chief proponent of scientific cartography, and his influence on his contemporaries was profound.
To illustrate the cartography of the middle to latter part of the eighteenth century a d'Anville map is essential. He was foremost in using the latest and most accurate cartographic information available. From the latest discoveries of the many French explorers to information available from explorers such as Cook and others. And unlike many cartographers of the day, he was not adverse to leave blank spaces in his
maps, where knowledge was insufficient.
R.V. Tooley write : "D'Anville was the finest cartographer of his time, his attention to detail was exemplary, his maps having a great delicacy of engraving".
Thomas Basset and Philip Porter write: "It was because of D'Anville's resolve to depict only those features which could be proven to be true that his maps are often said to represent a scientific reformation in cartography." (The Journal of African History, Vol. 32, No. 3 (1991), pp. 367-413).
D'Anville and Thomas Jefferson
D'Anville's maps draw on material gathered from several French expeditions made during the first half of the eighteenth century. At this time the French were intent on finding a trade route to the western Indians and to Santa Fe and also on preempting Spanish expansion into the Mississippi river valleys.
Around 1720, Jean Baptiste Bénard de La Harpe undertook two expeditions to explore the Red and Arkansas rivers and part of what is now Oklahoma. At roughly the same time, Claude-Charles du Tisné journeyed by land to the source of the Osage River and explored southeastern Kansas.
Maps engraved by d'Anville incorporated the discoveries of La Harpe and Tisné and significantly improved the geographic knowledge of the Mississippi and Missouri river regions.
It is known that Thomas Jefferson acquired seven maps by d'Anville in 1787, and although the titles of the maps he acquired are not known, Jefferson must have been familiar with d'Anville's maps of North America, including "Carte de la Louisiane." In a letter to Secretary of the Treasury Albert Gallatin relating to a newly commissioned map of North America, Jefferson discussed the use of d'Anville as a reference for the lower Mississippi basin.
Meriwether Lewis obtained a copy prior to the Lewis & Clark Expedition.
D'Anville's map "Carte de la Louisiane." shows the Gulf Coast from the Tallahassee area to around the mouth of the Sabine in Texas, one of the best obtainable large format maps of the region from this period. The map tracks the Mississippi, Arkansas, Red, Osage and Missouri Rivers, and includes excellent large inset of the Mississippi River Valley from the Arkansas to above the Missouri Rivers.
Most of the information was derived from Valentin Devin, who arrived in Pensacola in 1719 (under the auspices of John Law's Company of the West) and began producing highly regarded maps immediately upon his arrival on the Gulf Coast, until expelled by the Spanish after a three year struggle. Devin used his information and materials gathered from Le Maire and others to produce a number of manuscript maps which were sent back to France and resulted in a series of maps by De L'Isle, Buache and finally d'Anville, whose maps of the Gulf Coast formed the standard for a number of years.
D'Anville's two-sheet map "Amerique Septentrionale. Publiee sous les auspices de Monseigneur le Duc d'Orleans, Premier Prince du
Sang. Par le Sr. d'Anville, M DCC XLVI" depicts a "Grande Rivière" running to the west out of the "Lac des Bois" with a note that it was discovered by an Indian named Ochagac, or Ochagach, a reference to the accounts of La Vérendrye and his sons. The map labels the upper Missouri the "Pekitanoui R." Only the upper half of "Amérique Septentrionale" is exhibited. Shows boundaries of Treaty of 1763 and Ft. Duquesne.
References : Wagner, 552; Lowery, 382; Taliaferro, 134; Checklist of printed maps of the Middle West to 1900, 1-0598; Karpinski, LVIII; Tooley, Printed maps of America, 104; cf P571, 572, 599; NMM 200.
China and Korea
Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d’Anville beautifully printed and splendidly illustrated "Nouvel atlas de la Chine, de la Tartarie chinoise, et du Thibet." is the summation of European knowledge on China in the 18th-century. It was begun by the Jesuit missionaries to China in 1708, and their completed manuscripts were presented to the Emperor Kang-hi in 1718. Kang-hi ordered further surveys and from them were constructed the well-known maps forwarded to father Du Halde and used by d'Anville for this Du Haldes "Description … de l'empire de la Chine et de la Tartarie chinoise" (1736) and his Atlas (1737).
This atlas contains a very detailed two-sheet map of the Far East (map 22 and 22a) including China, Korea and Japan.
The map is dated 1752 and it becomes clear that he has incorporated the sources for of his "Nouvel atlas de la Chine".
Atlas in elephant folio (book block measuring 580x375 mm.), bound in contemp. half calf with gilted label on spine "ATLAS DE D'ANVILLE", 59 pages multisheet maps, actual map sheet count is 42. Maps dated 1743-1786. This set is accompanied by a 4 pages printed broadsheet "Mémoire instructif. . . En Mars MDCCXXXII D'Anville, Geographe ordinaire du Roy. Permis d'imprimer ce 21 Mars 1732, Herault" and 4 pages manuscript text in pen and brown ink "Mémoire instructif pour faire la carte (de d'Anville)..."
Very good condition inside the
book block, the two sheet map of Africa has slight overall browning, the others printed on fine white thick paper and coloured in outline. Damaged spine, needs restoration.
The maps are copper engravings with original out line colour, most are double page, some folding, multi sheet maps. The first 39 maps have a number 1-39 in brown ink in a contemporary hand on verso.
The cartouches on many of the maps are designed by his brother; Hubert-François Bourguignon, commonly known as Gravelot (26 March 1699 — 20 April 1773). Gravelot was a engraver, a famous book illustrator, designer and drawing-master. Born in Paris, he emigrated to London in 1732, where he quickly became a central figure in the introduction of the Rococo style in British design, which was disseminated from London in this period, through the media of book illustrations and engraved designs as well as by the examples of luxury goods in the "French taste" brought down from London to provincial towns and country houses. The maps are engraved by the master engravers Guillaume De la Haye, Major, Delafosse.
Most of d'Anville's atlases were made up for the individual customer, so it appears that no two are alike.
The atlas contains the following maps, extra maps, broad sheet and manuscript note:
Ancient world :
1. - Orbis veteribus notus.
2. - Orbis romani pars occidentalis.
3. - Orbis romani pars orientalis.
4. - Gallia antiqua.
5. - Tabula Italiæ antiquæ geographica.
6. - Græciæ antiquæ specimen geographicum.
7. - Asiæ, quæ vulgo minor dicitur, et Syriæ tabula geographica. (with minor spotting)
8. - La Palestine.
9. - Ad antiquam Indiæ geographiam tabula.
10. - Ægyptus antiqua.
Europe / World map :
11. - Germanie, France, Italie, Espagne, Isles britanniques dans un âge intermédiaire de l'ancienne géographie et de la moderne.
12. - Hémisphère oriental ou de l'Ancien Monde. Revu et augmenté des découvertes, en 1786 par M.Barbié du Bocage.
With many updates in Australia.
13. - Hémisphère occidental ou du Nouveau Monde. Revu et augmenté des découvertes, en 1786 par M.Barbié du Bocage.
With many updates in USA.
Jean Denis Barbie Du Bocage (1760-1825)
Studied at the Mazarin College in Paris and became in 1777 the only pupil of Jean-Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville.
In 1780, aged 20, he worked for the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and, from 1785 he worked for the library of "Cabinet des médailles de la Bibliothèque du roi " and moved in 1792 to the Geography department in the same part of the same library.
Since 1797 a member of "du conseil de géographie du bureau du cadastre du ministère de l'intérieur" and in 1802 he was responsible of various geographical works, among a map of the Morea (Peloponnese) for the Ministry of War. From 1803 to 1809, he was a geographer at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and became the first professor of geography at the Faculty of Arts of Paris from 1809 to 1825.
He gathered a large collection of maps and geographic documents, his library was sold after his death in February 1850.
Being a pupil of d'Anville, it was clear that Jean Denis Barbie Du Bocage was asked to update the d'Anville maps after the Treaty of Paris (1783). The very large two-sheet double hemisphere world map (over 3ft, 1m) who was engraved by Guillaume Nicolas Delahaye in 1761 is heavenly updated to 1786. The states of quot;Virginie", "Caroline" are removed and replaced by "ETATS-UNIS". Alaska, Cape Cod, Savanah, S.Paul and the discoveries of Captain Cook, including an early appearance of the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii) are now added to the plate. The latest discoveries by Cook in NW of America are also included. Bocage has included nearly all Cooks detail of New Zealand.
In the western hemisphere, especially Australia has many place names added.
14. - Première partie de la carte d'Europe contenant la France, l'Alemagne, l'Italie, l'Espagne & les isles britanniqs (2-sheet map of Europe, to be joined with 14a).
14a. - [Première partie de la carte d'Europe contenant la France…] (To be joined with map 14).
15. - Seconde partie de la carte d'Europe contenant le Danemark et la Norwège, la Suède et la Russie. (2-sheet map of Russia and Scandinavia to be joined with 15a).
15a. - [Seconde partie de la carte d'Europe contenant le Danemark…] (To be joined with map 15).
16. - Troisième partie de la carte d'Europe contenant le Midi de la Russie, la Pologne et la Hongrie, la Turquie. (2-sheet map of Central Europe and Turkey, to be joined with 16a).
16a. - [Troisième partie de la carte d'Europe…] (To be joined with map 16).
17. - La France divisée en provinces et en généralités.
18. - La France divisée en provinces et en généralités.
19. - L'Italie… (2-sheet map of Italy).
19a. - [L'Italie… ] (To be joined with map 19).
20. - Les Côtes de la Grèce et l'archipel.
21. - Première partie de la carte d'Asie contenant la Turquie, l'Arabie, la Perse, l'Inde en deça du Gange et de la Tartarie (2-sheet map of Near East, to be joined with 21a).
21a. - [Première partie de la carte d'Asie…] (To be joined with map 21).
22. - Seconde partie de la carte d'Asie contenant la Chine et partie de la Tartarie, l'Inde au-delà du Gange, les Isles Sumatra, Java, Bornéo, Moluques,
Philippines, et du Japon (2-sheet map of the Far East, to be joined with 22a).
22a. - [Seconde partie de la carte d'Asie…] (To be joined with 22, Showing China, Korea and Japan).
23. - Troisième partie de la carte d'Asie, contenant la Sibérie, et quelques autres parties de la Tartarie (2-sheet map of Russia and Siberia, to be joined with 23a).
23a. - [Troisième partie de la carte d'Asie,..] (To be joined with 23. Showing Siberia and Kamchatka and northern tip of Japan).
24. - Carte de l'Inde dressée pour la Compagnie des Indes (4-sheet map of India and Siam. Two joined sheets of northern India, to be joined with 24a).
24a. - [Carte de l'Inde …] (2 joined steets, to be joined with map 24.).
25. - Coromandel (2-sheet map of Coromandel coast, to be joined with map 25a).
25a. - Coromandel. (to bejoined with map 25).
26. - Golfe persique.
27. - Essai d'une nouvelle carte de la mer Caspienne.
28. - Carte de la Phœnicie et des environs de Damas.
29. - L'Euphrate et le Tigre.
30. - Golfe Arabique ou mer Rouge.
31. - Afrique (4-sheet map of Africa, 2 joined sheets).
31a. - [Afrique] (2 joined sheets with map 31.)
32. - Égypte nommée dans le pays Missir.
33. - Carte particulière de la côte occidentale de l'Afrique depuis le cap Blanc usqu'au cap de Verga, et du cours des rivières de Sénéga et de Gambie […] dressée pour la Compagnie des Indes (2-sheet map, to be joined with 33a).
- [Carte particulière de la côte occidentale de l'Afrique… ] (to be joined with map 33).
34. - Guinée entre Sierre-Lione et le passage de la ligne.
35. - Amérique septentrionale (4-sheet map of North America, 2 joined sheets).
35a. -[ Amérique septentrionale] (2 joined sheets with map 35.)
36. - Canada, Louisiane et terres angloises (4-Sheet map of Canada and New England, to be joined with 36a, 36b, 37).
36a. - [Canada, Louisiane et terres angloises]
36b. - [Canada, Louisiane et terres angloises]
37. - Le Fleuve Saint-Laurent.
38. - Carte de la Louisiane (2 joined sheets).
39. - Amérique méridionale ( 6-sheet map of South America, 2 joined sheets).
39a. - [Amérique méridionale] (2 joined sheets with 39 and 39b).
39b. - [Amérique méridionale] (2 joined sheets with 39 and 39a).
Bound with :
(40) - Printed letter press by d'Anville, Mémoire instructif pour que dans toutes les paroisses d'un diocèse, il soit
dressé en même-tems & uniformément, par une méthode aisée à pratiquer, des cartes & des
mémoires particuliers, qui puissent fournir un détail suffisant pour la carte générale de ce diocèse
ou d'une province. A Paris, chez Louis-Denis Delatour, 1732. 4 pp. in-folio.
(41) - Anonymous manuscript in brown ink : Mémoire instructif pour faire la carte (de d'Anville). No date. 4 pp. in-4.
Detailed description about how to draw a map.
(42) - Double page circulair projection with orientations and topographical icons and signs.
(43) - Carte topographique du diocèse de Lizieux.
(44) - Position des points discutés dans l'analyse géographique de l'Italie par le sr d'Anville.
(45) - Parallèle du contour de l'Italie selon les cartes de MM. De l'Isle et Sanson, et celle qui résulte de l'Analyse géographique de
ce continent par le s. d'Anville.